Practice at applying phonological rules

For each rule below, what would be the result if you applied that rule to the following underlying representations? Try to figure out each surface representation on your own, then click on the black box to reveal the answer.

Assume that there are boring “elsewhere” rules to cover all other phonemes and environments, for example: “/k/ → [k] / elsewhere”. If you need to figure out syllable boundaries that aren't given, assume that there aren't any phonotactic constraints beyond the Sonority Sequencing Constraint.

Question 1

Rule:    t → c / __ i

UR: / i t a t i t a t i t a t i t /
SR: ]

UR: / t i c i t i c i t /
SR: ]

Question 2

Rule:    t → θ / a __

UR: / i t a t i t a t i t a t i t /
SR: ]

Question 3

Rule:    d → dʒ / __ {i,e}

UR: / a d a d i d o d e d u d e d /
SR: ]

Question 4

Rule:    d → t /
C
|
__

UR: / d a d . k a l d . d r a n . d o d z /
SR: ]

Question 5

Rule:    x → k /
O
|
__

UR: / x a x . x e x . ʔ e x /
SR: ]

UR: / x a x e x t a x w e x /
SR: ]

Question 6

Rule:    d → t / __ ]word

UR: / d a d . k a l d . d r a n . d o d z /
SR: ]

UR: / d a d a d i d o d e d u d e d /
SR: ]

Question 7

Rule:    {b,d,ɡ} → {p,t,k} / __ ]word

UR: / d e b . d a ɡ /
SR: ]

UR: / ɡ o ɡ . ɡ a m b /
SR: ]

UR: / b o b o t /
SR: ]

Question 8

Rule:    k → x / V __ V

UR: / k a k e k t a l k e k /
SR: ]

UR: / d k a k o k t i x u k /
SR: ]

UR: / k a k . k e k . ʔ e k /
SR: ]

Question 9

Rule:    x → k / word[ __ C

UR: / a x t /
SR: ]

UR: / x a t /
SR: ]

UR: / x r a t /
SR: ]

UR: / a t x /
SR: ]

UR: / t x a r x /
SR: ]

UR: / x x o /
SR: ]

Question 10

Rule:    e → eː /
σ́
|
__

UR: / p e ˈ n e /
SR: ]

UR: / n a ˈ k a n e /
SR: ]

UR: / ˈ j e r e /
SR: ]

Question 11

Rule:    i → ɪ /
σ̆
|
__

UR: / p i ˈ l i k i ˌ n i t /
SR: ]

Question 12

Rule:    {i,u,e,o} → {ɪ,ʊ,ɛ,ɔ} /
σ̆
|
__

UR: / ˈ s i n o t u ˌ k e p a p e /
SR: ]

Question 13

Rule:    ɛ → e / __ (s) ]word

UR: / p ɛ s /
SR: ]

UR: / p ɛ s t /
SR: ]

UR: / ɛ t w ɛ /
SR: ]

UR: / s ɛ k t /
SR: ]

UR: / ɛ /
SR: ]

Question 14

Rule:    i → y / __ C0 u

UR: / i u t i o t i k u t i k k o /
SR: ]

UR: / s u p i /
SR: ]

UR: / s u p i n t u l i n s k r u /
SR: ]

Question 15

Rule:    {i,u} → {e,o} / {e,o,a} C0 __

UR: / p o k u /
SR: ]

UR: / p i t e t a f i f o k e t i /
SR: ]

UR: / a i n t e n t u a u s k t l o /
SR: ]

by Kevin Russell. Last updated: November 10, 2016.